What is an Object?

In Python, as in other Object-Oriented Programming languages, an object is an instance of a class. It’s a tangible entity that combines both data (in the form of properties or attributes) and behaviors (methods).

Defining an Object

To derive an object, a class must first be defined using the class keyword.

1class Dog:
2    pass

This Dog class doesn’t have any attributes or methods. To create an object of class Dog, you would instantiate like this:

1rover = Dog()

In this scenario, rover is an object (or instance) of the Dog class.

Object Attributes and Methods

Objects have attributes and methods. While attributes are essentially variables within the class, methods are functions that define how an object can interact with its attributes.

1class Dog:
2    def __init__(self, name, age):
3        self.name = name
4        self.age = age
6    def bark(self):
7        return f"{self.name} says woof!"

In this example, name and age are attributes. The bark function is a method of the Dog class. The self.name refers to the name attribute of the specific Dog object that calls the method.

Accessing Object Attributes and Methods

You can access an object’s attributes and methods using the dot (.) operator.

1rover = Dog('Rover', 5)
2print(rover.name)  # Outputs: Rover
3print(rover.age)  # Outputs: 5
4print(rover.bark())  # Outputs: Rover says woof!

Objects are a fundamental part of OOP and understanding them is key to structuring your Python code in an organized manner.


The self keyword in Python is used to reference attributes or methods of the object within the class. It’s equivalent to this keyword in other programming languages.